Check soil pH and fertility by having your soil analyzed at least once every three years. Your local Extension agent will have directions for properly collecting a soil sample. Your soil samples can be sent to the State University or a Soils Laboratory for testing. Soil testing kits are also available. Soil pH measures the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the soil. Vegetables vary to some extent in their requirements, but most garden crops will do well with a soil pH of 6.2 to 6.8. This is a little below neutral, or slightly acid (sour). If soil pH is too high or low, poor crop growth will result, largely due to the effects pH has on the availability of nutrients to plants.
A soil test report will include the relative level of phosphorus, potassium, and micronutrients in the soil. The report also will give you recommendations for the amount of lime and fertilizer to add so that your soil pH and nutrient levels are suitable for vegetables. To find out more about soil testing in you area, call one of the following local services:
Rock Island County Farm Bureau: (309) 736-7432
Scott County Extension Service: (563) 359-7577
A site that provides full sunlight, good air circulation, and a well drained soil high in organic matter is ideal for growing roses. Roses should receive at least six hours of sun a day. If all-day sun is not available, a location where they get only morning sun is preferred to one where they get only afternoon sun. Morning sun helps to dry the leaves quicker, reducing the potential for disease. Shade in the afternoon is a plus, as it helps to prolong flower quality.
Poorly drained soils and "wet feet" spell death for roses. When selecting a site, growers must be sure the drainage is adequate. If drainage is suspect, improve it through soil amendments or by constructing raised beds. If an 18-inch-deep hole filled with water drains in 5-6 hours, drainage is satisfactory.
Roses are tolerant of most soil types. However, they do better in a relatively fertile soil high in organic matter. Applying 2-4 inches of organic matter over the bed prior to tilling will help to improve the tilth of the soil. For each bushel of organic matter, add about 1/2 pound of superphosphate to the soil. A soil pH of 6.0-7.0 is preferred by roses. If possible, prepare planting beds as early as you can to allow the soil to settle. Bed preparation is a good time to address issues of nutrient and pH adjustments. It is absolutely necessary to prepare the bed before planting any plants.